Viscosity measurement with automatic cleaning down to -60°C

Modern aircraft operation makes extreme demands on technology and materials. It must be borne in mind that modern jets travel routinely at a height of 10 000 meters where the temperature is permanently at a polar level down to below -60 °C. The passengers themselves do not experience such conditions, but fuel in the tanks […]

Temperature stress test

In satellite technology travelling wave tubes are used as efficient and robust amplifier systems for microwave signals. The demands on quality and  reliability of the tube amplifiers are very high. Their average economic life time in orbit, e.g. in geostationary satellites such as Astra is approximately 15–18 years. Intensive function and stress tests are carried […]

Temperature control of a model for frost heave experiments

Frost heaves are a special kind of physical alteration of stones and other solids. They are caused by changes between frost and dew periods. Most common visible results are deformation and upward thrust of the ground surface. At the University of Alaska artificially generated frost heaves are examined in a model scale. For simulation of […]

Revolutionary methods require new approaches


Process intensification is a relatively new approach to boost a plant’s efficiency: it combines the optimisation of capital, energy, environmental and safety benefits with a radical reduction in plant-size. But the application of such revolutionary techniques has to overcome obstacles. Elaborate design and specialised equipment  are needed to deal with unconventional constraints.

Measuring during softening

Thermoplastics could not be developed without stability test methods according to DIN and ISO standards. A test apparatus permitting precise thermal process control is presented.

Interfacial instrumentation and viscometers control the ageing of transformers

Transformers (illustration no. 1) are some of the most important elements in the supply of energy. In addition to the main materials of copper, magnetic sheet steel and insulating materials (paper, pressboard, wood), transformer oils are used for insulation and cooling purposes. In normal operation, power and distribution transformers frequently reach an age of over […]

Learn to develop flow process – integral XT

The pharmaceutical industry is still dominated by flexible batch process and segmented unit operations. This article presents a portfolio of reactor equipment designed to facilitate the development flow process in this sector. using a unique scalable flow platform, the researcher can now rapidly evaluate and optimise synthetic processes on mg quantities of material and subsequently […]

Chemical synthesis and crystallisation at temperatures down to -90°C

Advancements in catalyser technology have revolutionised synthesis processes in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Many reactions or crystallisations in fine chemistry now take place at relatively low temperatures. This also applies to the production scale. The decisive advantage here is in the high selectivity of the resulting reaction products. At low temperatures, there is a […]

Accurate temperature control when determining vapour pressure controls

The vapour pressure of liquids plays a significant role in technology. Technical processes and process components can be improved using vapour pressure data. The more accurately the vapour pressure can be determined, the better it is possible to optimise processes and gain a deeper physical understanding of the procedures.

X-Ray Cooling System – UL Approved

The cooling of X-Ray equipment is crucial, especially when it’s part of a highly advanced three-dimensional imaging system. When Thermal Exchange Ltd was approached by a renowned manufacturer of X-ray inspection equipment to provide a bespoke x-ray cooling cooling solution, they immediately set about establishing their requirements and were soon designing the initial prototypes. The […]